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The basis of linear motor

In Electronic Infomation Category: T | on April 14,2011

Linear motor works

Linear motor is a direct conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy into linear motion, without any intermediate conversion sector gear. It can be seen as a rotary motor according to the radial cut open and HI5628/6IN datasheet and develop into a flat together.

Evolved by the side of the stator as the primary, evolved by the side of the rotor as the secondary. In practice, it will be the primary and HI5628/6IN price and secondary manufacturing into different lengths to ensure that the required travel range coupling between the primary and HI5628/6IN suppliers and secondary remain unchanged. Primary linear motor can be a short length of the secondary, can also be a short length of the primary secondary. Taking into account manufacturing costs, operating costs, are now routinely using a short length of the secondary primary. The working principle of linear motor and rotary motor similar. The linear induction motor as an example: When the primary winding pass into the AC power, they will wave in the air gap magnetic field generated in the secondary wave magnetic field cutting the line, will induce a force and generate current, the current gap in the the role of the magnetic field is generated relative to the electromagnetic force. If the primary fixed, then the secondary effect of the thrust of a straight line; the contrary, the primary a straight line. Linear motor drive control of a linear motor applications not only have good performance of the linear motor, must also have the conditions in safe and reliable technical and economic requirements to achieve the control system. With the automatic control technology and micro-computer technology, linear motor control more and more.

Of the linear motor control technology can basically be divided into three areas: First, the traditional control techniques, and second, modern control technology and the third is intelligent control. Traditional control techniques such as PID feedback control, decoupling control in AC servo system has been widely used. One implication of the dynamic PID control process controls the past, present and future information, and the configuration is almost optimal, robust, and is the AC servo motor drive system, the most basic control mode. In order to improve control performance, often using decoupling control and vector control technology. Determined in the object model, not change and is linear and the operating conditions, operating environment is to determine under the same conditions, the use of traditional control technique is simple and effective. However, high-performance high-precision micro-feed situation, we must consider the object structure and parameter changes. Various nonlinear effects of changes in operating environment and environmental disturbances such as time-varying and uncertain factors in order to obtain satisfactory control effect. Therefore, modern control technology in the control of linear servo motor caused a lot of attention. Common control methods include: adaptive control, sliding mode control, robust control and intelligent control. In recent years fuzzy logic control, neural network control, intelligent control methods have also been the introduction of linear motor drive system control. Present, is to use fuzzy logic, neural network and PID, H control, the control of the existing mature combining each other to get better control performance.

Linear motor, also known as linear motors, linear motors, linear motors. In practice, the steady growth in industrial applications show that the use of linear motor can be assured. Following is a brief linear motor and rotary motor types and their differences.

The most common type of linear motor is flat and U-trough, and the tube. A typical three-phase coil is formed, there is the Hall element to achieve brushless commutation

Linear motor clearly shows promoter (forcer, rotor) of the internal windings. Fate and the magnetic track. Epoxy materials promoter is pressed into the coil. Moreover, the magnetic track is fixed to the steel on the magnet.

Linear motor in the past 10 years, the practice of the dramatic growth and industrial applications significantly benefit really mature.

Simple linear motors are often described as a rotating motor is flattened, while working on the same principle. Promoter (forcer, rotor) is used together with epoxy materials made the compression coil. And the track is a magnet (usually high-energy rare earth magnets) fixed to the steel. Motor promoters include coil winding, Hall element circuit board, thermistor (temperature sensor monitors temperature), and electronic interfaces. In the rotary motor, the mover and stator need to rotate the bearing support to ensure the relative movement of promoter part of the air gap (air gap). Similarly, the linear motor linear guide needs to keep track promoter at the position of the magnetic field generated. And rotary encoder servo motor feedback position as installed in the shaft, linear motors require feedback linear position feedback devices - Linear encoder, it can directly measure the position of the load to improve the location accuracy of the load.

Control of linear motor and rotary motor the same. As brushless rotary motor, mover and stator without mechanical connection (brushless), unlike the rotating motor, the mover position of rotation and the stator remains fixed, linear motor system can be fixed or thrust coil track action (most targeting system application is a fixed track, moving coil thrust). Motor winding movement with a thrust, thrust the weight of the coil and the load ratio is small. However, the need for highly flexible cable and its management system. Track movement with the motor, not only to bear the load, but also the quality of bear tracks, but there is no cable management system.

Similar mechanical and electrical principles used in linear and rotary motor. The same electromagnetic force generated in the rotary motor torque generated in the linear motor thrust line effect. Therefore, the linear motor and rotary motor using the same control and programmable configuration. Linear motor can be a flat shape and the U-trough, and the tube. Depends on what kind of structure best suited to the practical application of the specifications and work environment.

Cylindrical moving magnet linear motor

Cylindrical moving magnet linear motor is a cylindrical structure promoter. Fixed the magnetic field along the cylinder movement. This motor was originally found in commercial applications, but can not be used requires a space-saving flat-and U-trough linear motor applications. Cylindrical moving magnet linear motors magnetic circuit and the moving magnet actuator similar. The difference is that the coil can be replicated to increase the trip. A typical three-phase winding is formed, the use of Hall devices to achieve brushless commutation. Thrust coil is cylindrical, up and down along the bar magnet. This structure is not suitable for magnetic flux leakage-sensitive applications. Must be careful to ensure that your fingers are not stuck in the side bar magnet between and attractive.

Tubular linear motor design in a potential problem, when the stroke increases, because the motor is completely cylindrical and up and down along the bar magnet, the only strong point at both ends. Ensure the deviation does not lead to the radial magnetic bar magnets contact thrust the length of the coil there will always be limited.

U-type slot linear motor

U-type linear motor trough between two metal plates are facing the coil between the promoter and the parallel track. Promoter by the rail system support in the middle of the two tracks. Promoter non-steel, means that no suction and coils in the track and the thrust force generated between the non-interference. Non-steel coil assembly with inertia, allowing the very high acceleration. Generally three phase coil, brushless commutation. Can be cooled by air cooling method to get the motor performance enhancements. There is also water-cooled method. This design can reduce the flux leakage because of better magnet installed in the U-shaped guide face slot. This design also minimizes the strong magnetic attraction caused by injury.

Track of this design allow the portfolio to increase the stroke length, limited to the length of cable management system is operational, the length of the encoder, and the mechanical construction of the large, flat structure of ability.

Flat linear motor

There are three types of flat linear motor (both brushless): no slot no core, no slots are slotted core and a core. Choices need to understand the application requirements.

No pan is a set of core plate motor coils mounted on a aluminum plate. As FOCER no core, no suction and joint effects of the motor (same motor with the U-shaped slot). The design of some applications in some help extend bearing life. Promoter can be installed from above or the side to fit most applications. This motor speed control for smooth application requirements is ideal. Such as scanning applications, but the design of flat track produced the lowest thrust output. Typically, the flat track with a high magnetic flux leakage. Therefore, operators need to exercise caution in case between them and the other by absorption between the magnetic material attracted to hurt. No chute

core: a core plate without slots and no slot motor structure similar to non-core motor. In addition to installation of steel laminated core structure and then install back on to the aluminum, iron magnetic laminated structures and increase the thrust of the guidelines. Track and the suction between the promoter and the thrust generated by the motor is proportional to lamination have led to joint forces. Install the promoter must be careful on the track so as not to damage the suction between them. Free slots free slots no more than a core core motor has more thrust.

Slotted a core: This type of linear motor, the coil was placed in a steel core to produce the core in the coil unit. Effectively enhance the core thrust of the motor output of the magnetic field generated by focusing coil. Armature core and the strong attraction between the magnetic track can be used as a gas bearing system of pre-pre-load. These forces will increase bearing wear, magnets can reduce the joint force of the phase difference.


(1) simple structure. Tube-type linear motor does not require intermediate conversion mechanism and linear motion directly, so that greatly simplify the structure, reduce the moving inertia, dynamic response and positioning accuracy is improved greatly; but also improve the reliability, cost savings, so that the manufacture and maintenance of more simple. To its first-class organization can be part of this unique combination makes this advantage further reflected.

(2) for high speed linear motion. Constraints because there is no centrifugal force, conventional materials can reach a higher speed. And if the primary and secondary magnetic cushion between the use of air or save space, movement without mechanical contact, and therefore also no moving parts friction and noise. Thus, there is no transmission parts wear, can greatly reduce the mechanical loss, to avoid hauling rope, cables, gears and pulleys, etc. caused by the noise, thereby improving overall efficiency.

(3) high utilization rate of the primary winding. In the tube-type linear induction motor, the primary winding is the cake-like, no end windings, and thus winding high utilization rate.

(4) no transverse edge effect. Lateral effect is caused by the lateral boundary breaking the weakening of the magnetic field, while the horizontal cylindrical linear motor without breaking, so the magnetic field uniform along the circumferential direction.

(5) easy to overcome the problem of unilateral magnetic pull. Radial tension cancel each other out, basically there is no question of unilateral magnetic pull.

(6) easy to adjust and control. By adjusting the voltage or frequency, or replacement of secondary materials can be obtained at different speeds, electromagnetic thrust for low speed reciprocating running applications.

(7) adaptability. The primary core linear motor can be sealed with epoxy resin into a whole, has good anti-corrosion, moisture resistant, easy in moisture, dust and harmful gas environment; and can be designed into a variety of structural forms, to meet different situations needs.


In the practical and buy from before the advent of linear motors, linear motion had to all rotating machinery through the use of ball or roller screw or a belt or pulley conversion from. For many applications, such as experiencing heavy load and the drive shaft is vertical plane. These methods are still the best. However, the linear motor than the mechanical system than to have many unique advantages, such as very high and very low speed, high acceleration, almost zero maintenance (no exposed parts), precision, non empty back. Simply complete the linear motion motor without gears, couplings, or pulleys, makes sense for many applications, the unnecessary, to reduce the performance and reduce the mechanical life of the parts removed.

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