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Position:IcFull.com » IC Electronic information » Category: G

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Gateway System Internet of Things

In Electronic Infomation Category: G | on March 19,2011

1 Gateway overview of things

Things is through the radio frequency identification (RFID), infrared sensors, GPS, laser scanners and OP06GZ datasheet and other information sensing device, according to the agreed protocol, to achieve any time, any place, any objects for information exchange and OP06GZ price and communication in order to intelligent identify, locate, track, monitor and OP06GZ suppliers and manage a network. Perception of things is a comprehensive, reliable transmission, intelligent processing features of the network connection to the physical world.

Wide range of uses of things, all over the intelligent transportation, environmental protection, government, public safety, safe home, smart fire fighting, industrial monitoring, elderly care, personal health, * Hui cultivation, water monitoring, food traceability, and intelligence on enemy detection collection and other fields.

Access way things are diverse, such as the wide area of ??the PSTN, a short distance of the Z-Wave and so on, things will be the gateway device is a means to integrate multiple access, unified access network to the Internet The key equipment. It can meet the local area a short distance communication access needs and achieve a connection with the public network, while completing forwarding, control and signaling exchange and encoding and decoding functions, and terminal management, security, authentication and other functions to ensure the quality of the business of things and security. Gateway of things of things in the future era will play a very important role, can sense an extension of network and protocol conversion between the access network, both can achieve wide-area Internet, local Internet can also be achieved, will be widely used in smart home, smart communities, digital hospital, intelligent transportation and other industries. Things

layered communication network system architecture, including the perception of extension systems, transmission systems, business operations management systems and a variety of applications, at different levels to support different communication protocols, as shown in Figure 1. Extended sensing system includes sensing and control technology, equipment, and the perception layer gateway extends the composition of support, including Lonworks, UPnP, ZigBee and other communication protocols, including the extension of a variety of sensing network. Sensing devices can be connected through a variety of access technologies to the core network, the remote data transmission. Business operations management system for energy consumption within the Internet of Things facilities, including the applications and business management support system. Application system for the statistical measurement of end-users, remote monitoring and control, intelligent interaction, and other types of business expansion. Business management support system user management, security, authentication, authorization and accounting functions.


2 Things gateway function

Gateway of things of things in the future era will play an important role, it will be connected with the traditional perception of the network communication network link. Perception of things can the network gateway and infrastructure network and the perception of different types of protocol conversion between networks, not only can achieve wide-area Internet, local Internet can also be achieved. Things are several features with the gateway.

(1) a wide range of access capabilities

Short-range communications technology is currently the standard for many, only the common WSN technology to include Lonworks, ZigBee, 6LowPAN, RUBEE and so on. Various technical applications mainly for a start, the lack of compatibility and system planning, such as Lonworks mainly used in building automation, RUBEE for hostile environments. How to achieve compatibility of the agreement, interfaces and systems, and currently has a number of organizations at home and abroad to carry out things in the standardization of the gateway, such as 3GPP, the sensor working group to achieve a variety of technical standards for communications interoperability.

(2) protocol conversion capabilities

From a different perception of the network to access the network protocol conversion, to lower the standard format for data harmonization package, to ensure that the perception of different network protocols can become a unified data and signaling; will be issued by the upper packet analysis into the perception of the signaling layer protocol can identify and control instructions.

(3) to manage capacity

Powerful management capabilities, for any large network is essential. First of all to manage the gateway, such as registration and management, rights management, state regulation. Gateway node subnet management, such as access node ID, status, property, energy, etc., and remote wake-up, control, diagnostics, upgrades and maintenance. Because of different technical standards subnets, protocols, the complexity of different, so different from the gateway with the management. In this paper, the gateway based on the modular approach to the management of things perceived in different networks, different applications, ensuring a unified management interface to be able to use technology for unified management of peripheral network nodes.

3 Things gateway system design

Perception of things can the network gateway and infrastructure network and the perception of different types of protocol conversion between networks, not only can achieve wide-area Internet, local Internet can also be achieved. The perception of things the network gateway design for heterogeneous data-aware environment for effective shielding of the underlying differences in effective communications and data communications network integration, modular design, unified data representation, a unified address conversion achieved. The following gateway from the hierarchy of things, information exchange processes and systems to achieve three aspects to be described.

3.1 Hierarchy Perception of things

extension gateway devices support a variety of communication protocols and data types, to achieve a variety of data communication between devices sense an extension of the format conversion, upload the data on a unified format, while achieving a sense of acquisition or control of an extension of the network mapping command, communication protocol that meets the specific equipment the news. Extension of the gateway to the perception of things for unified control and management device to the upper extension of the network mask the underlying heterogeneity of perception, is divided into four layers, namely the business service layer, the standard message form layer, protocol adaptation layer and the perception of extension layer, shown in Figure 2.


(1) business service layer

Business service layer consists of a message receiving module and the message module. Receiver module responsible for receiving messages from the operations management system of things the standard message, the message is passed to the standard message form layer. Messaging module is responsible for business operations management systems to reliably extend the network to send the collected sensing data. The receiving and sending the message layer must conform to the standard message format.

(2) the standard message form layer

Standard message form layer analysis module and the message from the message conversion module. Message parsing module parse the standard from the business service layer message, call message conversion module converts the message to the standard extension of the underlying sensing devices to understand device communication protocol depends on the specific data format. When the perception of extension when uploading data layer, the layer analysis module will parse the message depends on the specific device communication protocol message, call message conversion module to convert the business service layer to receive the standard format message. Message form the gateway layer is the core of things, completion of standard messages, and extension of the network depends on the particular perception of the news of the resolution, and to achieve the mutual conversion between the two to achieve a unified control and management of the underlying perception of extended networks, shielding the bottom up heterogeneous network communication protocol purposes.

(3) Protocol Adaptation Layer

Protocol adaptation layer to ensure the perception of different layer protocol can be extended through this layer into a uniform format for data and control signaling.

(4) perception of extended layer

This level extends to the underlying perception of equipment, including messages sent and received messages two sub-modules. Send a message through a message form the module layer is responsible for conversion of equipment can be extended to understand a particular perception of messages to the underlying device.

Message receiver module is receiving a message from the bottom of the device, sent to the standard message form layer resolution.

Perceived by the perception of facilities extended network, including radio RFID, GPS, video monitoring system, various types of sensors. Extended sensing devices support multiple communication protocols, can form a variety of Lonworks and Zigbee, and other perceived extended network.

3.2 information exchange process

Figure 3 shows the interaction flow of information of things, the specific process is as follows.


(1) the end user that meets the standard data format message and send it to the Gateway business service layer message receiving module.

(2) business service layer message receiver module will be the standard message to the standard message form the message layer analysis module.

(3) message parsing module calls the appropriate message transformation functions to the standard information into a device communication protocol depends on the specific message.

(4) message parsing module will depend on the specific device into the communication protocol of the message sent to the perception of extended messaging service layer module.

(5) extending aware messaging service layer module select the appropriate transmission, will depend on the particular device communication protocol specific messages to the underlying device.

(6) the implementation of the underlying device information collection based on specific information operations, and returns the results to the gateway services layer extends the message perception receiver module.

(7) Gateway extends the perception of the news service layer device receiver module will depend on the specific messaging protocol to the standard message form the message layer analysis module.

(8) message parsing module calls information conversion module, will depend on the device communication protocol specific message into a standard message.

Can be seen from Figure 3, the gateway of things of things to solve the different devices within the network can not be unified control and management issues, to achieve the purpose of shielding the underlying communication differences and makes the end-user devices without the need to know the underlying details of the specific communication to achieve an extension of the different perception of the unified access layer device.

3.3 System Design Things

Typical applications based on the structure shown in Figure 4. Wireless sensor nodes collect the appropriate data, via wireless multi-hop self-organizing way to send data to the gateway, fixed RFID tag reader to read the content sent to the gateway; gateway will send the data to the server through the WCDMA network; server These data are processed, stored, and provide an information platform for users (including PC users and mobile users) to use. It can be seen from Figure 4 gateway is set up things perceived bridge networks and access networks, play an important role.


Gateway in the design of things, the use of modularization, design for different perception of network and infrastructure network, to achieve universal low-cost gateway. In accordance with the modular idea, the gateway system of things into the data collection module, the processing / storage module, access module and power module, as shown in Figure 5 (a) below.


Data aggregation module: implementation of data collection or the physical world together.

Off this site system uses sensor network aggregation network nodes and RFID readers as a data collection device.

Processing / storage module: is the core module of the gateway, which implements the protocol conversion, management, security and other aspects of data processing and storage.

Access module: the wide area network access gateway, the approach may include a wired (Ethernet, ADSL, FTTx, etc.), wireless (WLAN, GPRS, 3G and satellite), the system uses the access mode WCDMA .

Power management module: responsible for the entire systems power supply, stable operation of the system stability and power modules are closely related, where both hot-swap power module design and voltage conversion. The power supply may include electricity, solar, battery and so on.

Data aggregation module and processing / storage module with UART interface between the type of way. Access module and the processing / storage module using the interface type between the PCIE way. Gateway software is designed with hierarchical structure, in the end application layer protocol data conversion. Doing things the same modular gateway hardware, software functions to achieve a modular gateway, different hardware modules corresponding to different drive module; by dynamically loading operation, were extracted from the access module and the data collection module public drive, according to access the hardware modules to load different drivers in different modules, hardware modules to achieve the purpose of driving, as shown in Figure 5 (b) below.

3.4 key technology

Gateway system design things to solve the following key technologies.

Unified software interaction protocols: the gateway things modular system design is a way that the various parts of the hardware and software, making the substitution between modules is very easy to achieve a different perception of extension network and access network Internet, communication between the bottom shield. One form of hardware modules are connected using UART bus, the software is modular loadable run, and the common part of the abstract into the public module. Therefore, the data gathered to support the new modules and access modules only need to develop the appropriate hardware modules and drivers can be. In addition, add the unified protocol adaptation layer (Figure 6), a unified application data will be extracted, in accordance with the TLV (type, length, value) organized manner, and then encapsulated packets. Makes the access network transmission is standard in the IP data packet, which encapsulates the data collection TLV format.


Unified address translation: different data collection network using different addressing modes, such as ZigBee, 16-bit short address, 6LowPan in 64-bit address. In the application only need to be able to navigate to a specific node, the node is not concerned about the use of IP address or 16-bit short address, do not care network is used between nodes or 6LowPan ZigBee or other means. These addresses will be converted into a unified representation is conducive to the development of applications, so the gateway address mapping to implement a mechanism to IP or 16-bit short address mapping for the unified ID, interaction with the application only need to focus on this ID can be. Detailed mapping can be used from a cumulative way, when the gateway receives the data to the first node, the nodes address is mapped to 1, follow-up, in order, plus 1, this mapping table stored in the gateway. It also uses an aging mechanism is not received within a certain time, the data of the node will remove this provision mapping.

Unified data interface acquisition module: the definition of acquisition module and the gateway between the AT command set, the node through the ZigBee protocol network. The interface with the gateway between the acquisition module is only concerned about the control of the instruction and data exchange instructions, do not focus on specific network protocol, network protocol to achieve independence.

Data mapping relationship management: how to manage the gateway connecting two or more devices in the system in the communication data mapping, addressing the usual sense, is a very important step. And this part of the gateway is connected for different bus devices are quite different. Under this site may be linked to all related modules of input and output data format, and then each module are defined the corresponding communication interface configuration word.

4 Conclusion

Aim of this paper to support a variety of sensor network and access network gateway device that can support different types of sensor nodes and access to, and middleware or application can provide a unified data format , so as to shield the different sensor network applications and access network, making the application only needs to focus on applications of data processing.

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